Indigenous Australians have lived off the often unique native flora and fauna of the Australian bush for over 60, years. It is understood that up to 5, species of Australian flora and fauna were eaten by Indigenous Australians.
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Resource availability and dietary make-up varied from region to region and scientific theories of bush tucker plants being spread by hand have recently emerged. Native food sources were used to supplement the colonists' diet following the arrival of the First Fleet in Botany Bay in Following the pre-colonial period , British colonisers began arriving with the First Fleet of ships at Sydney harbour in After initial difficulties, Australian agriculture became a major global producer and supplied an abundance of fresh produce for the local market.
Stock grazing mostly sheep and cattle are prevalent throughout the continent.
Queensland and New South Wales became Australia's main beef cattle producers, while dairy cattle farming is found in the southern states, predominantly in Victoria. Wheat and other grain crops are spread fairly evenly throughout the mainland states. Sugar cane is also a major crop in Queensland and New South Wales. Fruit and vegetables are grown throughout Australia  and wheat is a main component of the Australian diet.
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Billy tea is the drink prepared by the ill-fated swagman in the popular Australian folksong " Waltzing Matilda ". Boiling water for tea over a camp fire and adding a gum leaf for flavouring remains an iconic traditional Australian method for preparing tea , which was a staple drink of the Australian colonial period. The nation also has a longstanding dairy industry virtually from colonisation and today produces a wide variety of cheeses , yoghurts , milk , cream , and butter products.
Australians are high consumers of dairy products, consuming on average some The chocolate and malt powder Milo , which was developed by Thomas Mayne in Sydney in in response to the Great Depression , is mixed with milk to produce a popular beverage. In recent years, Milo has been exported and is also commonly consumed in Southeast Asia even becoming a major ingredient in some desserts produced in the region. Australia's wine regions are mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country, in South Australia , New South Wales , Victoria , and Western Australia.
Beer in Australia has been popular since colonial times. James Squire is considered to have founded Australia's first commercial brewery in and the Cascade Brewery in Hobart, Tasmania , has been operating since the early 19th century. Since the s, Australian beers have become increasingly popular globally - with Fosters lager being an iconic export brand. Craft beer is popular, as well as distinctive products from smaller breweries such as Coopers and Little Creatures.
Rum served as a currency during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Australia when metallic currency was in short supply. Australia has a distinct coffee culture. The flat white first became popular in Australia, and its invention is claimed by a Sydneysider.
In , the first espresso machines began to appear in Australia and a plethora of fine Italian coffee houses were emerging in Melbourne and Sydney. This decade also saw the establishment of one of Australia's most iconic coffee brands, Vittoria , which remains the country's largest coffee maker and distributor. The brand has existed in Australia since , well before it moved to the US. Although Australians often drink tea at home, it has been found that in out-of-home establishments where tea and coffee are sold together, tea accounted for only 2. One reason for this is that unlike in the United States and Asia, Australia already had a developed coffee culture for many decades before coffee chains came to the market.
With most diners in New York going out of business, Australian brunches, beverages and breakfast are gaining popularity and changing the appetite of New Yorkers. Australia also has large fruit growing regions in most states for tropical fruits in the north, stone fruits and temperate fruits in the south which has a mediterranean or temperate climate. The Granny Smith variety of apples first originated in Sydney , Australia in Fruits cultivated and consumed in Australia include: apples, banana, kiwi fruit , oranges and other citrus, mangoes seasonally , mandarin, stonefruit, avocado, watermelons, rockmelons, lychees, pears, nectarines, plums, apricots, grapes, melons, papaya also called pawpaw , pineapple, passionfruit and berries strawberries, raspberries etc.
Kangaroo , emu and crocodile meat is available in Australia, although it is not among the most commonly eaten meats. In colonial recipes, kangaroo was treated much like ox tail , and braised until tender forming a rich gravy. It is available today in various cuts and sausages. Lamb is very popular in Australia, with roasting cuts legs and shoulders , chops , and shanks being the most common cuts. Lamb will often form part of either a Sunday roast or a barbecue. It is also commonly found as an ingredient in doner kebabs , a dish of Turkish origin that has been popular in Australia since the s.
In , Australians consumed an average of 8. By way of comparison, New Zealanders average 3. Seafood consumption is increasing, but it is less common in the Australian diet than poultry and beef. The most common species of the aquaculture industry are: salmonids , tuna , edible oysters , pearl oysters and prawns.
Other species include: abalone , freshwater finfish such as barramundi , Murray cod , silver perch , brackish water or marine finfish such as barramundi, snapper , yellowtail kingfish , mulloway , groupers , mussels, ornamental fish, marine sponges, mud crab and sea cucumber. While inland river and lake systems are relatively sparse, they nevertheless provide freshwater game fish and crustacea suitable for dining. Fishing and aquaculture constitute Australia's fifth most valuable agricultural industry after wool , beef , wheat and dairy.
European carp , common in the Murray as an invasive species is not considered edible by most Australians despite being common in cuisines across Europe. Australian cuisine features Australian seafood such as southern bluefin tuna , King George whiting , Moreton Bay bug , mud crab , jewfish , dhufish Western Australia and yabby. Australia is one of the largest producers of abalone and rock lobster.
Fish and chips is a take-away food that originated in the United Kingdom and remains popular in Australia. Flathead is also a popular sport and table fish found in all parts of Australia. Barramundi is a fish found in northern Australian river systems. In the temperate regions of Australia vegetables are traditionally eaten seasonally, especially in regional areas, although in urban areas there is large scale importation of fresh produce sourced from around the world by supermarkets and wholesalers for grocery stores, to meet demands for year-round availability.
Damper is a traditional Australian soda bread prepared by swagmen , drovers and other travellers. It is a wheat flour based bread, traditionally baked in the coals of a campfire.
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The Australian hamburger consists of a fried beef patty, served with shredded lettuce and sliced tomato in a usually toasted bread roll. Tomato sauce similar to ketchup but made with less sugar with a more liquid texture or barbecue sauce are almost always included. Beetroot and fried onions are also common additions, and sometimes sliced pineapple. Other frequently-served hamburger options are bacon, fried egg and cheese. Pickles are rarely included, except in burgers from American chains. A common takeaway food is the meat pie , often found at bakeries and especially popular at AFL matches.
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Barbecue sausages are a common food, particularly in the form of the sausage sizzle , which has been described as both a cooking technique and a cultural event. They are served in a slice of white bread optionally with onions and tomato sauce. As well as national icons there are many regional iconic foods. Jubilee cake is a specialty of South Australia. Victoria is famous for its home-grown Melbourne invention, the dim sim.
It consists of doner kebab meat served over hot chips and covered in sauces usually chilli , garlic , and barbecue. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the Culture of Australia History People. Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore. Comic books. Music and performing arts. Radio Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Flag Coat of arms.
Main article: Bush tucker. See also: Modern Australian cuisine. Main article: Seafood in Australia. ANZAC biscuits , made without coconut. Date of visit: July Thank Matildagibbons. Reviewed yesterday via mobile Nice find. Thank kodde. Reviewed yesterday Best vegetarian restaurant I've been to. Thank meikebee.
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